Sizing of Hybrid Energy Storage Systems Using Recurring Daily Patterns


A hybrid Energy Storage Systems (ESS) consists of two or more energy storage technologies, with different power and energy characteristics. Using a hybrid ESS, both high-frequency and low-frequency power variations can be addressed at the same time. For an accurate sizing of a hybrid ESS, the use of high-resolution data is required. However, high-resolution data over long periods leads to large data sets, which are difficult to handle. In this paper, an improved motif discovery algorithm is introduced to find the most recurring daily consumption patterns within the time series of interest. The most recurring pattern is selected as the representative of the time series for sizing the hybrid ESS. Next, a simple optimization framework is proposed for selecting the cut-off frequency of a low-pass filter, used for allocating the power to different storage technologies. Finally, the proposed sizing approach is applied for sizing a hybrid battery-flywheel ESS at four different low voltage distribution grids in southern Germany using real measurement data. It is demonstrated that a hybrid ESS, with the characteristics derived from the most recurring patterns only, can effectively provide their intended grid services for most of the days during the whole period of the time series.